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ing strength. Fine thread takes longer to go in but has greater clamping strength. This knowledge, along with a couple of models (Photos 5 and 6), will go a long way to help students understand the differences between coarse and fine thread bolts and screws. categories: Aerospace, Agricultural, Archi-tectural, Biomedical, Chemical, Civil, Com-puter Electrical/Elec-tronic, Environmental, Health and Safety, Industrial, Marine, Materials, Mechanical, Mining/Geological, Nuclear, and Petro-leum. Engineering is the “who” and the work of engineers is the link between scientific discover-ies and the commercial applications that meet societal and consumer needs. People who invent make prototypes and are able to get the principles of theory and design across, but these prototypes are not able to handle the rigors of continual usage of the public. So engineers bridge this gap. Math! Photos 5 and 6—Showing how a screw is an inclined plane wrapped around a rod Math is probably the most misun-derstood of the sciences. To many, it is difficult, scary, or unfathomable. To others, math teaches, instructs, and opens doors to wonders beyond our understanding without it. Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1726), one of the most influential scientists of all time, laid the foundation for classical mechanics. He formulated the Laws of Motion and Universal Gravitation (gravity), which dominated scien-tists’ view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. In order to explain to other scien-tists the Laws of Motion and Univer-sal Gravitation, he needed to create a new language. That language was calculus! Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) said it best: “The universe cannot be read until we have learned the lan-guage and become familiar with the characters in which it is written. It is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wander-ing about in a dark labyrinth.” Like any language, you first have to learn the “alphabet”. Math’s alpha-bet are the “letters’ we use to make all the “Words.” These letters are: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 0. We call it the decimal system since it has 10 “letters”. We put the “letters” to-gether to make “words.” 12 is a math “word”, when we put letters from our own alphabet with them, they make it meaningful, like 12 a.m. The “sentences” are the formulas we use with the letters to make sense of the world around us, such as the Pythagorean Theorem: a 2 + b 2 = c 2 as stated in math language, or as stated in our words: In a right-angled tri-angle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides (Fig. 4). Math is all around us; it is the building block for everything in our daily lives, including mobile devices, Fig. 4— Pythagorean theorem a b c So we can define technology as the “What”—tools, machines, tech-niques—that are used to solve prob-lems and perform functions. Engineering! Engineering combines the fields of science, technology, and math to solve real world problems that im-prove the world around us. Engineers apply the Laws of Science, using the technology available to them and applying mathematics to develop economical solutions to technical problems. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there are 17 engineering architecture, art, money, engineering, and even sports. What would we do without math? It tells us the size of the football field, how to keep score, the size of the ball, and more. Math tells us how fast we are going, especially in a vehicle, say 70 mph. We use math to tell time throughout the day, when to do or not do things. 20 tech directions ◆ september 2017

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